Utilization Of Waste Banana Skin For Poultry Feed

Waste of bananas

By: SITI QOTIMAH E1C009013
Department of Animal Husbandry Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu, Indonesia

Nutrient content is a potential banana skin at all as a good source of carbohydrates for all phases of animal life. Mainly carbohydrate extract materials without nitrogen at 66.20% (Heruwatno, et al. 1993) and still contains cellulose and hemicellulose for 40% of total crude fiber they contain (Parakkasi, 1990) with a crude fiber content of a banana skin by 13% (Gohl , 1981).


The results of the analysis of banana peels performed in the Laboratory Animal nutrition and food UB (Susilowati, 1997) nutrient composition is obtained as follows: BK = 12.6%; BO = 80.36%; PK = 8.36%; sugar reduction = 42 , 34% and sugar dissolved = 5.41%. Especially the carbohydrate content of sugar reduction in banana peel included in Readily Available Carbohidrates (RAC) with a gross energy 3724.32 Kcal / kg.

Several studies have shown that artificial feeding starchy banana peels can improve chicken production seen from weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, serum cholesterol levels in the blood, meat, liver, feces, and severe digestive organs. Artificial feeding starchy banana peel can also produce broiler meat with low cholesterol levels.

INTRODUCTION

Banana peel is a waste of banana processing industry. Processing waste banana peel will produce considerable amount that is approximately one-third of an unpeeled banana (Munadjim, 1983 cited by Siti Qotimah). In addition to industrial waste processing banana, banana peel is also a household waste if disposed of carelessly will cause people to slip and pollute the environment. Therefore, the need for processing banana peel into something useful.

Waste banana peels can be used for banana peel vinegar, nata de banana, wine (grapes), and animal feed. Judging from the composition, banana peels have very high content of vitamin A, especially the provitamin A beta-carotene which, at 45 mg per 100 g dry weight. Beta-carotene acts as an antioxidant (Elvien, 2010 cited by Siti Qotimah). In addition, it also contains carbohydrates banana peel extracts mainly materials without nitrogen at 66.20% (Heruwatno, 1993 cited by Siti Qotimah), so it can be used to partially replace corn or bran in the ration.

Nutrient content is a potential banana skin at all as a good source of carbohydrates for all phases of animal life. Mainly carbohydrate extract materials without nitrogen at 66.20% (Heruwatno, et al. 1993) and still contains cellulose and hemicellulose for 40% of total crude fiber they contain (Parakkasi, 1990) with a crude fiber content of a banana skin by 13% (Gohl , 1981). Van Soest (1994) that cellulose and hemicellulose are components of plant cell walls that can still be utilized by ruminants. The results of the analysis of banana peels performed in the Laboratory Animal nutrition and food UB (Susilowati, 1997) nutrient composition is obtained as follows: BK = 12.6%; BO = 80.36%; PK = 8.36%; sugar reduction = 42 , 34% and sugar dissolved = 5.41%. Especially the carbohydrate content of sugar reduction in banana peel included in Readily Available Carbohidrates (RAC) with a gross energy 3724.32 Kcal / kg.

The threat of rising raw material prices of feed, such as corn, then the required materials can be substituted for lower feed costs. The existence of partial substitution of corn with banana peel waste will reduce feed costs and also affect the production costs incurred by farmers.

In some studies show that artificial feeding starchy banana peels can improve chicken production seen from weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, serum cholesterol levels in the blood, meat, liver, feces, and severe digestive organs.

Artificial feeding starchy banana peel can also produce broiler meat with low cholesterol levels. It shows a banana peel can be used as poultry feed to produce low cholesterol. High cholesterol content which will cause many people to avoid consuming these products for the health. Therefore, it is required that poultry products healthy and low in cholesterol. This can be done by using banana peel as a poultry feed.

Proximate Analysis of Banana Skin

The results of the proximate analysis for measuring the levels of protein, fat, BETN, crude fiber, ash, calcium and phosphorus, did not show significant differences (P> 0.05) between the drying oven and dry in the sun, except for the levels of water and energy. The results of the analysis of banana peel in Indonesia showed that banana peel contains – a fairly high content of foods.

From the results obtained by the analysis of proximate nutrient composition of banana peel as follows: BK = 12.6%; BO = 80.36%; PK = 8.36%; sugar reduction = 42.34% and sugar dissolved = 5.41%. Especially the carbohydrate content of sugar reduction in banana peel included in Readily Available Carbohidrates (RAC) with a gross energy 3724.32 Kcal / kg.

Physical and chemical properties of banana skin

Processing a banana peel into flour products is one of the ways to cope with the waste banana peels, so as to have the benefit and economic value. According to research some experts, banana peels made by blending flour producing properties as follows:

Nature Physics

  • Texture refined flour
  • Length: 12-18 cm
  • Color: Dark Brown

Chemical Properties

  • Easily oxidized, marked by discoloration on the banana peel.
  • Has a high nutritional value

Digestibility Analysis Banana Skin

Level of digestibility, intake and nutrient use efficiency of feed material waste origin or outcome affected by crop residue levels of various chemical compounds that are inhibitors (inhibitors). At the origin feed ingredients crops inhibiting factor is dominated by the bleak polymer lignin phenolic compounds present in the cell wall. On the stems and leaves of banana lignin content of 12% (Roxas et al., 1996; Quiros et al., 1996 cited by Siti Qotimah). The low dry matter digestibility of banana plants (42%) might be associated with higher levels of lignin and tannin.

Benefits Facts Banana Skin for Poultry Feed

A study that aims to determine the potential banana skin powder as broiler chicken feed to produce low cholesterol meat by Hernawati et al. A total of 20 broiler chickens were used in the study design completely randomized design (CRD). Broilers given artificial feed containing wheat banana skin with levels of 30%, 50% and 70% in 100 grams of feed, while the control is given artificial feed with no flour banana peel. Each treatment was repeated five times. Artificial feed given every morning and evening as much as 100 g / head, and given drinking water ad libitum. Artificial feed containing wheat banana skin with levels 30%, 50%, and 70% lower ration consumption, body weight, carcass weight, but increase the conversion ratio. Artificial feed containing wheat banana skin with levels 30%, 50%, and 70% did not affect blood cholesterol levels, lower cholesterol meat, raise cholesterol levels the liver and feces. Artificial feed containing wheat banana skin with a fiber content of 30%, 50% and 70% can be accepted as an alternative broiler chicken feed to produce meat with low cholesterol levels. Use banana peel flour as broiler feed ingredients should be at a level of 30% or 50%. This can be seen by ration consumption, body weight gain, conversion ratio, carcass weight, cholesterol meat yield a fairly good value. The conclusion of this study that artificial feeding starchy banana peel can produce broiler meat with low cholesterol levels.

The study uses a banana peel has been done in Indonesia. Banana skin as basal feed cattle had low crude fiber content of the constraints that must be added to the offering of high coarse fibrous forage. But as the energy-rich banana skin so pemberiaanya can not be mixed with protein nitrogen (NPN) such as urea as the nitrogen source for microbial protein synthesis (single cell protein). The use of urea in feed protein source recommended maximum of 1% of the total dry matter of concentrate or as many as 5% of the protein concentrate. Given the chemical urea is not exactly have a lot of weaknesses that the pollution of the soil and the environment and harmful residues in the digestive tract of cattle, so the use of chemicals is not so recommended.

Impact of Giving Ways and Banana Skin for Livestock

From a variety of studies that have been carried explained that banana peel flour was not only used as a substitute for animal feed, but the feed material to supplement nutrition supplement that does not exist on the main feed. Giving a banana peel can be mixed with the main feed, but the gift limit is only 30% -50% of the total ration given.

Further impact of the ration with a banana peel flour mixture in poultry, especially broilers, can reduce consumption of rations, body weight, carcass weight, but increase the conversion ration. Artificial feed containing wheat banana peel does not affect blood cholesterol levels, may lower cholesterol meat, raise cholesterol levels the liver and feces.

CONCLUSION

A banana peel banana waste can be used as animal feed, either given directly to the animal or through processing first. The content of nutrients in banana peels can be used in all phases of growth of livestock. The processing of banana peels can be done by changing the shape of a banana skin into flour. This can be beneficial to livestock and farm. Giving leather banana flour limited in only 30% -50% of the total ration is given, it can improve feed conversion and lower cholesterol levels in broiler meat.

REFERENCES

Zahera, Rika. , 2011. Utilizing Waste Banana Skin for Poultry Feed. http://www.livestockreview.com/2011/05/memanfaatkan-limbah-kulit-pisang-untuk-pakan-unggas/. 28 November 2011.

Nurfa.2010. Bananas For Alternative Feed Ingredients. http://ridanurfa.blogspot.com/2010/11/pisang-sebagai-bahan-pakan-alternatif.html. 28 November 2011. 28 November 2011

Anonimous. ? . Paper Science & Technology Feed Materials Processing. http://blognyaanneke.blogspot.com/2011/04/my-first-entri-makalah-iptek-pengolahan.html. 28 Novembere 2011

Hernawati, et al. ?. Potential Banana Skin Powder as Feed Broiler Chickens for Meat Produce Containing Cholesterol Low. http://file.upi.edu/Direktori/FPMIPA/JUR._PEND._BIOLOGI/197003311997022-HERNAWATI/FILE_19.pdf. 29 November 2011

Go organic. ?. The waste bananas and Potential for Livestock Feed. http://agriculture-go.blogspot.com/2011/12/pisang-dan-potensi-limbahnya-untuk.html. 29 November 2011

Anonimous. ?. http://repository.upi.edu/operator/upload/s_bio_056325_chapter1.pdf. December 1, 2011

Nurkholis, Moch. , 2005. Evaluation of Nutrient Metabolism Energy Moot (Ame) Energy Metabolism And True (Tme) Different Types of Wheat Banana Fruit Leather In Broiler. http://student-research.umm.ac.id/index.php/dept_of_animal_husbandry/article/view/2535

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